Table 5

Risk of Cancer in Various Sites Associated with ST Use and Smoking

    Cancer Site

    Risks from ST Use*

    Risks from Smoking**


Pharynx

No relationship

RR= 5–11

Larynx

No relationship

13–15

Lung

Inadequate

13–23

Stomach

Not persuasive

1.4–2.0

Kidney

No association

1.3–3.7

Esophagus

Not persuasive

7–8

Pancreatic cancer

Inconclusive

2.3

Bladder cancer

None

2.2–3.3


* From [94].

** Among current smokers (men and women), used by the CDC for national estimates of smoking-attributable mortality [96].

Rodu and Godshall Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:37   doi:10.1186/1477-7517-3-37

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