Table 3

CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers

Number of daily preparations

Number of daily sessions

Total daily smoking duration

CEA mean levels (ng/ml)

p-values Smokers vs non-smokers


Light Smokers (n = 5)

1

1

≤ 20 minutes

1.06 ± 0.492

≤ 0.002157

Medium

Smokers

1 to 3

1 to 3

≤ 2 hours

2.52 ± 1.15

≤ 0.9138

(n=28)

Heavy

Smokers

2 to 4

3 to 8

≤ 6 hours

5.11 ± 3.08

≤ 0.0001567

(n=26)

Overall hookah

exclusive smokers

1 to 4

1–8

≤ 20 min-6 hrs

3.58 ± 2.61

≤ 0.0937

(n=59)

Non-smokers (n = 36)

-

-

-

2.35 ± 0.71

-

*Cigarette (n = 122)

smokers

-

-

-

9.19 ± 14.9

≤ 5.0 × 10-7

*Mixed hookah/cigarette smokers (n = 14)

-

-

-

7.16 ± 10.38

≤ 0.006069


*Data from previous study on cigarettes and mixed hookah (cigarettes, bids) smokers (Sajid et al 2007) aggregated.

Sajid et al. Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:19   doi:10.1186/1477-7517-5-19

Open Data