Table 2

Age-, gender-, and race-adjusted comparisons for route of drug administration among rural (n = 101) and urban (n = 111) drug users

Rural

Urban

Adjusted *

%

%

P-values


Buprenorphine (sublingual tablets)

50.5

0

---

Swallowing

31.7

0

---

Snorting

26.7

0

---

Injecting

3.0

0

---


Fentanyl (patch)

35.6

0

---

Swallowing

25.7

0

---

Snorting

1.0

0

---

Injecting

14.9

0

---


Hydrocodone (tablets)

90.1

91.9

0.408

Swallowing

68.3

91.9

0.046

Snorting

74.3

6.3

< 0.001

Injecting

0

0

---


Hydromorphone (all formulations)

32.7

4.6

0.001

Swallowing

6.9

4.5

0.524

Snorting

5.9

0.9

0.472

Injecting

21.8

0

---


Methadone (tablets)

77.2

3.6

< 0.001

Swallowing

27.7

3.6

0.083

Snorting

64.4

0

---

Injecting

1.0

0

---


Morphine (all formulations)

53.5

4.6

0.007

Swallowing

14.9

3.6

0.652

Snorting

17.8

0.9

0.547

Injecting

33.7

0

---


OxyContin® (generic/tablets)

86.1

23.6

0.002

Swallowing

25.7

22.5

0.442

Snorting

68.3

3.6

< 0.001

Injecting

44.6

0

---


Other Oxycodone** (tablets)

83.2

50.0

0.374

Swallowing

31.7

47.7

0.026

Snorting

68.3

1.8

< 0.001

Injecting

3.0

0

---


* p-values adjusting for age, race, and gender

** Includes, for example, Tylox®, Percocet®, and Percodan®

Young et al. Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:24   doi:10.1186/1477-7517-7-24

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