Table 5

Frequency (n) and Predicted Probability with 95% CI of Specific Routes of Administration by Compound/Formulation

Immediate release

Extended-release/long-acting1

Generic name

Number

Predicted Probability

95% CI

Number

Predicted Probability

95% CI


Hydrocodone

4,136

-

-

-

-

-

Intended ROA

3,668

0.896

0.887,0.905

-

-

-

Injection

49

0.010

0.007,0.013

-

-

-

Inhalation

795

0.171

0.160,0.183

-

-

-

Chew

759

0.163

0.152,0.175

-

-

-

Other

240

0.048

0.042,0.055

-

-

-

Oxycodone

3,279

-

-

3,271

--

--

Intended ROA

2,671

0.824

0.810,0.837

2,034

0.621

0.603,0.639

Injection

208

0.052

0.045,0.059

803

0.221

0.207,0.236

Inhalation

932

0.260

0.245,0.276

1,502

0.444

0.426,0.463

Chew

650

0.175

0.162,0.188

605

0.162

0.150,0.175

Other

242

0.063

0.056,0.072

346

0.089

0.080,0.099

Fentanyl

39

-

-

383

-

-

Intended ROA

5

0.081

0.032,0.090

33

0.060

0.043,0.085

Injection

4

0.062

0.022,0.163

85

0.171

0.138,0.210

Inhalation

7

0.120

0.054,0.244

6

0.010

0.004,0.023

Chew

7

0.119

0.054,0.243

39

0.072

0.052,0.098

Other

27

0.630

0.453,0.778

270

0.676

0.623,0.725

Hydromorphone

626

-

-

-

-

-

Intended ROA

208

0.295

0.259,0.333

-

-

-

Injection

361

0.554

0.512,0.595

-

-

-

Inhalation

153

0.208

0.178,0.242

-

-

-

Chew

49

0.061

0.046,0.080

-

-

-

Other

51

0.064

0.048,0.084

-

-

-

Methadone

-

-

-

2,426

-

-

Intended ROA

-

-

-

2,009

0.836

0.820,0.850

Injection

-

-

-

179

0.060

0.052,0.070

Inhalation

-

-

-

366

0.129

0.116,0.143

Chew

-

-

-

351

0.123

0.111,0.137

Other

-

-

-

350

0.123

0.111,0.136

Morphine

408

-

--

792

-

-

Intended ROA

146

0.332

0.286,0.381

336

0.389

0.354,0.425

Injection

232

0.558

0.506,0.608

382

0.451

0.415,0.488

Inhalation

81

0.173

0.140,0.213

222

0.242

0.213,0.274

Chew

45

0.092

0.069,0.123

89

0.089

0.072,0.109

Other

33

0.066

0.047,0.093

38

0.036

0.026,0.050

Oxymorphone

30

-

--

149

-

-

Intended ROA

14

0.388

0.226,0.578

47

0.249

0.187,0.324

Injection

6

0.129

0.054,0.280

12

0.055

0.031,0.096

Inhalation

18

0.535

0.344,0.716

114

0.738

0.654,0.807

Chew

4

0.081

0.028,0.212

23

0.109

0.072,0.163

Other

4

0.089

0.031,0.224

4

0.120

0.008,0.049


1Intended routes of administration: Fentanyl ER, patch; Fentanyl IR, sublingual; all others, swallowed whole. Methadone is the only long-acting opioid; all other opioids are extended-release.

Butler et al. Harm Reduction Journal 2011 8:29   doi:10.1186/1477-7517-8-29

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